Archive for the ‘Lesson’ Category

The corruption of the last syllable containing the vowel ‘a’ on Indonesian

2007 December 23

In spoken Indonesian, the vocal ‘a’ on the last syllable of many words change into ‘e’. When this colloquial corruption exists, using the correct version sounds very very stiff and formal. Here are some examples:

teman -> temen (friend)
Temenmu tadi juga kuliah di UGM? – Does your friend (which we met earlier) also study in UGM?

But not preman -> premen (even though it has the same last syllable as the previous example)

dalam -> dalem (inside)
Bukunya ada di dalem tas yang kecil itu. – The book is inside that small bag.

malam -> malem (night)
Gimana kalo ngerjainnya nanti malem aja? – How about doing it later tonight?

But not salam -> salem

tanam -> tanem (to plant), also its derived word tanaman -> taneman (plant)
Tadi aku ngeliat taneman aneh lo di kuburan! – I found a weird plant on the cemetery, you know!

enam -> enem (six)
Aku udah nyoba enem kali tapi masih belum bisa menang juga. – I’ve tried six times but still couldn’t win.

But not senam -> senem

senang -> seneng (to like)
Aku nggak gitu seneng lagu ini. – I don’t really like this song.

But not renang -> reneng

simpan – simpen (to keep something in a place)
Simpen di tempat yang aman lo! – Make sure you keep it in a safe place!

But not depan -> depen

malas -> males (lazy)
Kalau kamu males-malesan, mana bisa lulus? – If you act lazy, how can you pass?

But not kelas -> keles

Most of the words that I could think of ends with -n, -m, or -ng (which in Japanese is all represented by ん). Can you find other examples?

It is OK to use the corrupted vocabulary presented here when talking to someone higher (e.g., teacher). However, it is not used in formal writing or speech.

Plastik sebagai alat makan

2007 December 15

Di halaman Wikipedia tentang daftar peralatan makan, kita bisa menemukan sendok sampai sumpit. Walaupun begitu, ada satu alat makan yang biasa kugunakan namun tidak terdaftar di situ: plastik!

Plastik untuk makan

Plastik menggabungkan kenyamanan makan menggunakan tangan dengan kepraktisan tidak perlu mencuci tangan maupun alat makan. Cara mendapatkannya juga sangat mudah, tinggal meminta “plastik minum” ke penjual makanan setelah kita membayar.

Inilah tata cara makan menggunakan plastik:

Mengeluarkan isi plastik

Pertama, turn the plastic inside out. Bahasa Indonesianya, buatlah agar permukaan dalam plastik menjadi permukaan luar. Alasannya, ada kemungkinan permukaan luar aslinya telah terkontaminasi berbagai debu dan kuman. Permukaan dalam aslinya mestinya tidak pernah terekspos lingkungan luar sehingga lebih higienis.

Langkah ini belum tentu selalu berhasil dengan mudah. Kadangkala, kita mendapatkan plastik gagal alias permukaan dalamnya saling merekat. Terus saja menggesek-gesek sampai berhasil melepas rekatannya atau sampai bosan.

Memasukkan tangan ke plastik

Setelah itu, masukkan tangan kamu ke dalam plastiknya. Langkah ini juga belum tentu langsung berhasil, sebab kadang-kadang penjual makanan tidak punya stok plastik yang cukup besar. Kalau plastiknya terlalu kecil, coba saja regangkan sambil berharap plastiknya tidak robek.

Makan dengan plastik. Itadakimasu!

Setelah semua persiapan tadi, tinggal acara utamanya yaitu makan! Jangan lupa membuang sampahnya pada tempatnya.

Sebagai alat makan yang sekali pakai buang, sepertinya kelemahan satu-satunya alat makan ini adalah sampah yang dihasilkan. Ya, alat makan ini tidak ramah lingkungan! Di saat ada orang-orang tertentu yang membawa kantong sendiri untuk berbelanja di swalayan (untuk mengurangi jumlah penggunan plastik yang ujung-ujungnya menjadi sampah), makan menggunakan teknik ini rasanya sedikit bersalah. Baikkah menyebarkan meme (baca: mim) “plastik makan” ini di Internet?

Seberapa luaskah penggunaan alat ini? Seringkali, waktu aku minta plastik kepada pedagang yang baru kukenal pun, ada yang menjawab “Oh, buat makan ya?” Mungkin penggunaannya tidak sesedikit yang kuduga. Tapi selama ini, pengguna lain yang pernah kulihat hanyalah beberapa temanku, dan pasti saat makan bareng aku. Dengan kata lain, saat aku yang pergi beli makanan, mereka nitip plastik juga karena sebelumnya telah melihat aku menggunakannya. Misalnya saat makan malam YIC di perpus sebelum melanjutkan bertanding lagi, atau bersama teman lain saat sedang Wifi-an di kampus.

Kalau kamu belum pernah mencobanya, ayo coba sekali-kali…

Panduan Yahoo! Jisho: Kamus Jepang Inggris dengan Banyak Contoh Kalimat

2007 December 8

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Tutorial penggunaan SQLite dari .NET menggunakan bahasa C#

2007 June 11

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SQLite, mesin SQL yang kecil dan cepat

2007 May 29

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Kanji mnemonic: plant, fence, and bridge

2007 March 18

We will learn 3 shapes this time!

First is the plant shape. Observe the blue shapes in these kanji:

草 is the kanji for grass (kusa), 花 is the kanji for flower (hana), and 菜 is the kanji for vegetables (na). I call the blue shape the “plant” shape. Here’s an image of two plants:

For decoration, I made the flowers bloom :). Note that you can see the roots underground. The superimposed image should make it clear why it is called the plant shape:

Of course the discussion wouldn’t be complete without the stroke order:

OK, the plant shape… I’ll guarantee that you will meet it often (and many times in a plant-related kanji). The other two shapes are less common but I bring it here because they are similar to the plant shape.

Next is the bridge shape. See the blue shapes in the following kanji:

算 is the kanji for calculation (san), 鼻 is the kanji for nose (hana), and 械 is the kanji for machine (kai). This shape is devilish because it is so similar to the previous one. Having a completely different mnemonic is a must if you don’t want things mixed up. Look at the image below:

It is a nice bridge that allows you to cross the river! The image fits well with the shape:

Hence it is called the “bridge” shape. Remember, the key point is the bend on the left vertical stroke. Plant roots don’t bend sideways because, well… probably because gravity. Or is it because they can “smell” more water below and try to dig downwards as far as they could? Whatever, here’s the stroke order:

Now for the last one, the fence shape. Take a good look at the blue shapes below:

黄 means yellow (ki), 散 means to scatter (chi.ru), and 昔 means olden days (mukashi). It’s the plant shape with an extra stroke! But I use a different mnemonic, not related to plants, so that those two aren’t mixed up. Look at my drawing below:

Why, it’s a nice fence that protects the garden… Focus on the two vertical woods, and superimpose the kanji shape:

It fits perfectly! Therefore I call it the “fence” shape. The stroke order:

I hope with those mnemonics, your kanji quest can be made easier. Happy kanji hunting!

The sound of kana ん (n)

2007 March 13

In Japanese, the kana ん (n) is considered a sound that can stand by itself. It sounds somewhat like “uhm”.

In normal speaking the ん sticks to the preceding kana. For example, りんご (ringo, apple) is pronounced “rin-go”, not “ri-n-go” (ri-“uhm”-go). Note that because ん is considered one mora (beat), “rin” (composed of 2 mora, “ri” and “n”) should sound longer than “go” (only 1 mora). The elongation is done by holding the “n” sound for a while.

However, in songs ん is oftenly detached and voiced by itself! This is very funny considering that the same thing doesn’t happen in Bahasa Indonesia and English. Consider Indonesian words like “jantan”, “makan”, and “jalan”. In songs (and conversation), they are always pronounced as “jan-tan”, “ma-kan”, and “ja-lan”. The same thing holds in English (e.g., “wo-man”, “ten”, “a-gain”, “A-me-ri-can”). ‘n’ never gets its own note.

An Indonesian or English song where the ‘n’ is forcibly separated would sound wacko. Try to imagine it… However enter the Japanese music world and a lone ‘n’ doesn’t seem weird at all… Two examples:

Anshinkan (Berryz Koubou): Nee itsu datte anshin shitai no yo (a-n-shi-n)
Aozora ga Itsumade mo Tsuzuku You na Mirai de Are! (Morning Musume): So donna toki mo jibun jishin shinjite GO (do-n-na, ji-bu-n, ji-shi-n, shi-n-ji-te)

Of course ん can also stick to the preceding sound like in normal speaking, so it all depends on the songwriter. In these following examples the ん isn’t separated:

Sakura Mankai (Morning Musume Sakura Gumi): aa sakura mankai, nee sakura mankai mune no naka (man-ka-i)
Lemon Iro to Milk Tea (Morning Musume): onnaji kuukan kuukan eiga no naka kansei kansei (on-na-ji, kuu-kan, kan-sei)

I’ve said that in speaking (conversation, speech, anything other than songs) the ん is normally attached. That is almost always the case. However, I’ve actually encountered the isolated case several times! Here’s one example from a casual talk:

Sugaya Risako: ma… zenbu… kawaiin desu kedo, atashi ga ichiban… (i-chi-ba-n)

Of course, you can deliberately separate the ん if you want to give a slow motion effect. However I don’t consider that normal speaking. Nevertheless, this is what Sayumi does on her radio show:

Michishige Sayumi: Mooningu Musume Michishige Sayumi no “Konya mo Usa-chan peace…” (ko-n-ya)

To finish, I offer the audio file that contains all the above examples:

n-sound.ogg (duration 1:01, 515 KB): MediaFire mirror; 3000mb mirror; Indonesian mirror

(Audio made using the open source audio editor Audacity. To play the audio file in Windows you might need to install the codecs from Illiminable.)

Nanka: audio example

2007 March 10

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Kanji Mnemonic: Hockey player

2007 February 21

This time there’s a scanner around so I can show off my Picasso-like drawing ability…

First of all, observe the kanji in these words:

  • 指 (ゆび): finger
  • 摘む (つむ): to pick
  • 抱く (だく): to hug

Notice that the left shape of all the kanji is same! It’s a shape that occurs in hundreds of kanji, so it is wothy of a name. I call it the hockey player.

This is what a hockey player looks like:

Hockey player

If we change the camera a bit, here’s what he looks like from above:

Hockey player from above

Can you see it already? The next picture should make it clear:

Hockey player and the kanji shape

Therefore, the shape is called the hockey player. QED.

As a closing, here’s the stroke order, taken from Wikimedia Commons:

Hockey player stroke order

PS: Be careful not to confuse this shape with devil’s hand. (they look kind of similar)